The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the reasons for tooth extraction and their associations with possible risk indicators, such as socio-demographic and other epidemiological variables analyzed in dental practice in Greece. Materials and method: The study involved 2,250 individuals, 1,170 males and 1,080 females aged 18 to 78 years. Data were collected by means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and oral clinical examination. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire items was performed with a multivariate regression analysis model in order to estimate the possible associations between dental caries and periodontal disease as dependent variables, as well as the socio-demographic and other epidemiological variables, as independent parameters. Results: A total of 5,568 permanent teeth were extracted for various reasons during the study. The results showed that the main reasons for tooth extraction were dental caries (37.3%) and periodontal disease (35.0%).Tooth extraction due to dental caries was associated with risk indicators of lower educational and income level, inadequate oral hygiene and lack of a regular dental follow-up, whereas tooth extraction due to periodontal disease was associated with the same variables, to which smoking was added. Conclusions: Dental caries and periodontal disease were the main reasons for tooth extraction in Greece. In addition, significant associations were recorded between the causes of tooth extraction and the possible risk indicators under analysis.