The concentration of bivalent cations affects a large number of processes that occur in the oro-maxillary region. A connection has been established between chronic periodontitis, on one side, and the salivary concentration of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper and the
concentration of magnesium in blood, on the other. Patients with suppurations on oro-maxillo-facial area show decreased blood calcium concentration and increased salivary magnesium concentration. In the synthesis of dental enamel, calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper play important roles. Changes in the salivary concentration of bivalent cations are directly involved in some maxillary diseases and in tooth decay.